Sex discrimination occurs whenever a decision is based solely on a person's gender. For example, paying a woman less than a man to do the same job would likely constitute sex discrimination. Giving a man a promotion simply because the boss prefers that a man be promoted may constitute sex discrimination at work as well.
When a man or a woman is subject to unwanted sexual advances or requests for romantic favors, those events may also be considered discrimination. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 bans such behavior. Specifically, Title VII makes it illegal for employers to refuse to hire or provide employment terms based on an individual's gender. It also makes it illegal to discharge an employee on the same basis.
In addition, it is against the law to discriminate or harass a person during an apprenticeship program. After a person makes a claim regarding discriminatory behavior, Title VII says that an employer is not allowed to retaliate. For instance, if an employee complained that an advertisement for a job opening stereotyped one gender or the other, that employee could not be fired or disciplined for the remark.
Anyone who feels as if they are being subjected to sex discrimination may wish to file a complaint with their employer. If that does not work, the next step may be to talk to an employment law attorney who could try to help an employee seek compensation for damages associated with the incident. In some cases, discrimination may be proven by presenting evidence, such as differing pay scales for men and women or statements from employees and managers at a given company.
Source: findlaw.com, "Sex / Gender Discrimination: Overview", September 04, 2014